In America guidance has been developed more than in any other country. The reason is that American Society places much emphasis on individuals and this is for the following reasons:
- Division of labor
- Growth of technology
- Extension of vocational system
If one moves back in history. We come to know that it is uncertain to locate the ‘firsts’ in guidance but early 1900s is the period in which social consciousness was prevalent in journalism. literature and art. There were many protests against social injustices and economic. maladjustment.
Demands for reforms for experimentations for setting new goals rose and people awoke to the fact that old rural America was passing away. For every evil. remedy was required. Reformers tried to remove the cause of poverty and crime. Nation wide efforts were made to protect children. With the turn of century, there was half a million children working in factories and mines etc.
Society became conscious to save its generation and attention was paid to stop child labour with the provision of education for children and youth and thus protecting their health and morals.
Early 1890s was a time of change Masses, because of social problems, tried to solve them. The guidance evolved out of these efforts. This was also the beginning of industrial revolution. Chicago and New York were cities where industry was developing. But these developments brought with them problems and abuses also.
Jasce B. Davis. while serving (1898-1907) spent most of his time actively counselling boys and girls. When Davis became principal. he added a weekly period to vocational and moral guidance in the time table. It was 1908 in Boston when Frank Parsons founded a vocational bureau to advise men who were looking for jobs. Parsons is therefore called the father of guidance. He was interested in individuals. So that they can understand their strengths and weaknesses and is their knowledge in choosing vocational opportunities. It was the time when Davis and Parsons were beginning their work.
Eliweaver sought to assist a large number of children who were leaving school in New York City due to unfavourable conditions. At the same time, other guidance programmes and organizations emerged in Salt Lake City, Utah. Lincoln, Nebraska, Oakland and California. Much contribution also goes to National Vocational Guidance
Association (NVGA). In 1913 permanent National Organization at Grand Rapids
Michigan was founded and in 1915 its publication; the Vocational Guidance Bulletin was started.
By 1951 with the increase in NVGA’s membership the diversity of members ‘interest increased. This led to merging NVGA with other personnel organizations. Thus present organization of American Personnel and Guidance Association (APGA) was established in 1952. In 1975, the membership of APGA was more than 36,000. Its members belong to one or more of the following 12 divisions:
- American College Personnel Association (ACPA)
- Association for Counsellor Education and Supervision (ASCES).
- The National Vocational Guidance Association (NVGA)
- The Association for Humistic Education and Development (AHEAD)
- The American School Counsellor Association (ASCA).
- The American Rehabilitation Counselling Association (ARCA).
- The National Employment Counsellors Association (NECA).
- The Association for Measurement and Evaluation of Guidance (AMEG).
- The Association for Non-White Concerns (ANWC).
- The National Catholic Guidance Council (NCGO).
- The Association of Group Work Council Specialists (AGWC).
- The Public Offenders Counsellors Association (POCA).
The initial focus in the 1960s was on counselling as a developmental process. Gilbert Wrenn in his book” The Counsellor in a Changing World “reinforced Leona Tyler and Donald Bhocher’s view of resolving developmental needs. One Powerful approach ” Humanistic approach “also emerged during this decade. In 1970s several trends emerged, some of them are:
- The rapid growth of counselling outside the school
- The formation of helping skills programmes.
- The beginning of licensure for counsellors.
- Further development of APGA.
Leave a Reply