Explain Techniques and Attitude of Counselling

We, in a natural setting, find it easier to deal with some people than others but usually we fail to recognize what makes it easier. Our assumptions about relations are often inconsistent with the kind of relationship we need to get what we want. These inconsistencies lead to confusion about our objectives. But it is not the case with counselling.

The first interview is, in many ways, the hardest one. Three components of first interview as mentioned by Tyler (1969) acceptance, understanding and sincerity must be made apparent to the counselee from the first moment. Here understanding of pupil’s need is of crucial importance. Ohlsen (1964) has listed the following needs:

  •  Essential physical requirements.
  • Understanding of physical and emotional changes.
  • Self-acceptance.
  • Acceptance, understanding and love for others.
  • Recognition from others
  • Understanding of responsibilities to others.
  • Development of independence
  • Management of fear and guilt feeling.
  • Ability to face reality.

When a pupil comes in for an interview, first thing which is to be done in making acceptance evident to the counselee is hospitality. Counsellor can do many things to reflect his hospitality. He may arrange for personal introduction as much as possible. Client should be greeted in a friendly way. If client has made appointment, observe the time, otherwise, client may feel neglected.

Counsellor’s office should be comfortable, free from interruptions as they disturb smooth environment. Experienced interviewers recommend that general conversation in the beginning of the interview be carried out until counselee feels at ease in the situation as counselling is an intimate and trusting relationship. If counselling is to work, the client must feel that counsellor accept him as a person with his fault and short coming.

Counselor’s attitude towards his Client:

own feels behaviour trouble The How counsellor in a. counsellor accepting Olsen (suddenly has 1964 a feels difficulty client, towards finds) or has in is that understanding listed too his he/ her anxious cannot the client following to understand what is help very danger the him important client the, he signals client should is. saying. If at a evaluate this counsellor Stage:

• The counsellor has difficulty in understanding what the client is saying.
• The counsellor suddenly finds that he can not understand the client.
• The counsellor may suddenly think of something which is not connected with client statement.
• The counsellor may personally feel disturbed.
• The counsellor may feel that client is not telling everything required.
• The counsellor may find himself a specific point.
• The counsellor may learn some day that many of his clients may have similar problems with similar dynamics.
• The counsellor may show strong emotional tries with counselee.

The degree of preparation of counsellor first interview depend upon the concept of counselling of counsellor, amount of time available, and whether the client appear on time or not. In some clinical situation, counsellor may need a formal case history, while others counsellor challenges value of taking client history.

Statement of the Problem

First place of interview is the statement of problem. During first part of interview clients are given the opportunity to express their problems and interest. If the existing information is not enough, a counsellor may seek background information. The counsellor tries to assure the client that he is interested in what the client says. The counsellor is receptive in initial interview but observe initial assessment. Observation may include dress, walk, facial expression and any other special mamerism. . Initial assessment is tentative and may be changed in later sitting. Counsellor’s principal objective is to develop a working relationship with clients.


Clients can explore themselves only, if they feel that climate is safe enough.. When client describes himself, counsellor notes the strengths and weaknesses of the client. It is important to note the areas in which clients are succeeding.

Closing and Planning

At the end of the initial interview the counsellor will develop the practical point where client and counsellor have to establish some tentative goals to work in the counselling relationship. Counsellor also develops tentative method of working with client. For this counsellor may have to arrange for testing, occupational information and later interviews. At the end of first interview clients are concerned about closure.

It has many aspects, Holland (1965) has suggested three aspects” First, they have risked themselves in initiating counselling, and if they are interested in pursuing this relationship they want to know if the counsellor is going to work with them. Second, clients are concerned about whether they have done the right thing in seeking counselling with this person. Third, they want to know whether the counsellor thinks their problems can be successfully handled.
Hansen et al (1982) have presented a model of a continuing counselling relationship. It is a fact that all the counselling will not follow this process. Moreover, sequence of this process is not always observed and has no time limit.

Phase 1: Initiating counselling and establishing a relationship.

Phase 2:Exploring of self.

Phase 3: Deeper Exploration

Phase 4:  Working through

Phase 5: Termination

Last phase of the counselling process is termination. It may be a complicated one. Hoyt (1979) points out that much of what has been accomplished in counselling can be either consolidated or compromised in the termination phase. The way in which issues are handled in the termination phase do much to determine how closely the ultimate goals of counselling are met. In the process of counselling, diagnosis is also made.

The concept of diagnosis originates from field of medicine. Where it is defined as distinguishing an illness or disease and identifying symptoms: Concept of diagnosis is brought to guidance and counselling through psychiatry. The purpose of diagnosis in counselling is to identify the client’s life style of functioning, or the disruption of life style. specifically. The assumption underlying is that different problems require different treatment. Diagnosis. may be classified as remedial and developing strengths. Hansen et-al (1982) have developed the following category system for diagnosis:

  • Dependence
  • Lack of information
  • Self-conflict
  • Choice anxiety
  • No problem


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