Elaborate Process and Scope Of Counselling

The process of counselling may be seen as two dimensional Pietrofesa et-al (1980) views these two as the process from a counsellor’s technical skill oriented point of view and also the change process that occurs within the client”. After initiation of client, the counselling process moves through the following sequence:

  1. Establishment of structure.
  2. Development of relationship.
  3. Focus upon increasing self-understanding.
  4. Establishment of concerns and goals.
  5.  Planning a course of action.
  6. Termination and evaluation.

With the initiation of counselling process, there is a need to establish a structure within which counselling is to take place. At this point, it is necessary to establish goals and limitations for counselling process. They should be set in the light of client expectations, resources, especially time.

The next phase is to establish relationship between the counsellor and the client. The expected behaviour change may take place only if the client likes the counsellor and the counsellor likes the client, because, if one does not like the other person, he may not be open and honest in the real sense. Client may test the counsellor whether he can trust him or not The initial meeting may be artificial. If during the process, the counsellor’s attitude and ability to pay respect is not according to expectations of client, there may be a danger of discontinuation of the counselling process.

When the relationship is established, client will present a series of concerns that will require, firstly, increased self-understanding, then, identification of goals for the client, so that he can move forward. The client will demand attention from the counsellor towards his feelings and what they mean to him and the meanings he expects from his feelings. Usually reasoning is clouded by feelings and thus behaviour becomes self-defeating. At this point, counsellor helps the client to clarify, understand himself and his own feelings so that the client can establish realistic goals.
The next step is to identify goals with the client.  The goals will proceed from problems and deficiencies which have been identified earlier. In most counselling processes, multiple goal setting is necessary e.g. goals for relationship with teacher, with school, with peers and for recreation.

Moreover, it is seen that progress to achieve these goals is not always even. Once goals are established, it becomes necessary that action plan to achieve these should be chalked out. There are usually more than one alternatives but counselling process will help to choose most specific ones. Plans should be free from abstractness and vagueness. The final stage is evaluation i.e. termination. If the client progresses and becomes pleased with new formed behaviour, termination may take place as the most important goal of therapy which is to function without a counsellor”. But follow-up is important after termination. Evaluation according to Pietrofesa (1980) may be in these forms:

1. Client satisfaction.

Is client pleased with what occurred?

2. Process assessment.

In a review (tape) of counselling sessions is client growth apparent?

3. Outcome assessment.

were the identified goals accomplished?”

But most valid evaluation of the counselling process is the assessment of outcomes. Thus it is necessary to identify goals in behavioural terms. In counselling process, counsellor has to play a very important role. Boy and Pine (1968) have enlisted these conditions for achievement of required outcomes of a counselling programme:

  1.  The counsellor must be able to translate his professional education into practice.
  2. The counselling programme must have a rationale.
  3. The counsellor must achieve self-identity that can be translated into role description form.
  4.  The counsellor must present a positive image to students or clients.
  5.  The counsellor must motivate students to seek counselling.
  6. The counsellor must provide orientation to those groups whom he serves.
  7. The counselling must exist in a democratic administrative atmosphere.

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