Teaching profession is continuously under criticism. Postman and Weingarther (1969) believe that too often teaching methods are based on fear, coercion, rote memorization, and obsolete knowledge. They advocate inquiry method so that students learn how to learn. Silberman (1970) views classroom situation in crises which needs overhauling and reconstruction of public education, for this, counselling services are required in our educational institutions.
Though some institutions have introduced counseling services as students affair services but it is still a new practice. Counselors has to define and establish his/ her role in our school/ college system. It is a fact that there is no psychologist in our educational institutions, counsellor may also perform the function near to that of psychologist. As counsellors have specialised training, they perform activities which are not carried out by traditional teachers and administrators.
Teachers, during their training, learn that they are facilitators of learning. Major theme of the teachers ‘guidance activities are to conduct guidance activities commensurate with their training and responsibilities. Consequently, they may believe that this will take care of students’ total development. Teachers who provide vocational orientation are more aware of termination stage of secondary education thus more interested in preparing students for the world of work after schooling role of Teacher.
Grambs-academician and Iverson and (1952 ) have pointed. According out the to difference them:
“For Teacher Academician”
- Subject matter is priority.
- Test results determine level of potential achievement in subject matter
- Grades are a function of subject matter learning only. Only students who can learn the subject are able to succeed to a high degree.
- Few personal interviews are held with students except about academic problems.
- The students counsellor or other teachers are seldom consulted about the progress of an individual
- Few home visits are made and parent conferences at school are avoided.
- The role of emotion in learning is discounted.
For Teacher Counsellor:
- Personality is of first concern.
- Test results point out the areas of personal need and barriers to successful adjustment.
- Grades reveal many kinds of achievement, other than subject matter along social, psychological, aesthetic.
- Avenues of success for a variety of talents are vitally important.
- Many individual interviews are held about personal as well as academic problems.
- Student problems are often discussed with counsellors and teachers
- Numerous home visits are made and special invitations to individual parents to come to school for conferences are issued.
- Sensitivity to emotional tone in the classroom and with individual student is
In recent years, more teachers are learning to accommodate individual differences in their teaching. This approach not only makes classwork meaningful but also helps pupils meet their problems in socially-acceptable and personally satisfying. Shertzer and Stone (1976) have listed the following guidance responsibilities for teachers:
- Teachers engage in child study and diagnosis of their problems.
- Teachers identify and refer pupils who have special needs.
- Teachers contribute to and make use of guidance records.
- Teachers help pupils develop effective study habits.
In Pakistan, counseling in schools is not a planned and programmed activity.
Some institutions have Parent Teacher Associations where academic and non-academic discussion is carried out by the parents, teachers and the principal !. Teachers call parents to school when they feel that a particular student is causing disciplinary problems or not progressing satisfactorily in studies.
In case of distance education, guidance is provided through tutors, regional directors, student counsellor and academicians. In addition printed material is also made available to the student use. Administrators ‘training greatly influences their view of counselling and guidance. In addition to this, specific role if carried out by principal depends upon the size of administrative unit and time available with them.
If educational unit is large enough, counsellor may be employed and technical leadership may be delegated to Director of Guidance. But usually in our situation some guidance and counselling is expected from principal. Principals have to recognize the need for comprehensive guidance programme. If they do not support the programme, teachers will provide little support to this programme. Principals have to study the values, purpose and limitations of the guidance programme. Shertzer and Stone (1976) has listed eight major functions of principals.
1 . To secure an adequate number of counsellors for schools.
2 . To assure that roles of counselors are defined and staff members are able to carry out these.
3 . To provide adequate facilities and material.
4 . To interpret to teachers and public the objectives and activities of school guidance program.
5. To establish and encourage a school guidance committee to serve as an advisory and policy recommending body.
6 . To promote guidance for the faculty in-service.
7 . To encourage formal evaluation and improvement of the guidance programme and personnel.
8 . To consult with teachers and counsellors regarding specific needs and problems.
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